NOTE from the translator: The data inserted in square brackets is a clarification from the translator, [sic] means it was written like that in the text and contains a spelling mistake; the (?) means that the transcription is not very clear. The translation is organized by Page 1, Page 2, etc. This makes a quick search easy if using the find application and looking for the specific page number.
Junta Directiva – Board of Directors
Page 1-2-3-4-5: Session of the 6th of January 1907
The text starts with a request to name the wife of the Governor General, Mrs. Smith as the honorary president of La Proteccion as a sign of appreciation for her work to raise funds through a Garden Party organized by her and celebrated in the Malacanyang gardens. The Document acknoleges receiving a letter where someone donates two boxes of Horlick malted milk to be delivered at the organization. The blue prints of the construction elaborated by Arellano of a building for the corporation are presented. Miss A. Soriano was in charge of helping the architect to write the conditions of the contract. Dr. Calderon raised the issue that material needed to be brought from Europe. Dr. Ariston Bautista offered his company, Germinal, to build the bottle sterilizer. Discussion ensues on whether to ask for all the material from Europe or acquire what’s available in the Philippines. The bank gives a 3% interest rate. Dr. Doherty donates a house in San Pedro street to be used by La Proteccion. If the corporation is still prosperous after a year, the ownership of the land would revert to La Proteccion (page 3). The terms of the contract were too vague for the Board of Directors and they asked the secretary to write a letter in order to clarify the terms. Further discussion on how to proceed with the bank.
Page 6-7: Letter to Mrs. James Smith.
Dated in Manila to the 20th of January 1907. Informs Mrs. James Smith that she as been made honorary president of the corporation as a token of gratitude for celebrating the Garden Party on the 15th of December 1906, which generated donations for the organization.
Page 8-9-10: Session of the 3rd of May 1907
The first two points discuss the land property rights derived from the donation of the San Pedro street house by Doherty. Third point discusses a rise in the price of the material due to an increase of the cost of copper. The fourth point indicates that the architect has finished the works in the building and lists donations (items). Point five discusses the purchase of material for technical committee. Point six discusses hiring staff: a concierge, assistant, and two maids.
Page 11-12-13-14: Session of the 21st of August 1907
Points one to five discuss the acquisition of material and the appropriate payment. It also discusses the request to obtain free distilled water and ice. Point six discusses the appointment of Mr. Leoncio Rojas as the assistant to the secretary-accountant. Point seven discusses the agreed prices for the milk of different qualities per day: 0.80 pesos for wealthy families (1st category), and 0.30 for middle class families (2nd category), and 0.05 for poor families (3rd category). The price includes all intakes of milk per day needed by the infant as determined by the doctors. Point 8 names the concierge as Mr. Santiago Pingol, and the assistants as Pablo Rana and Dionisio Guevara. Point 9 discusses the publication of advertisement to find a milk provider. Mrs. Helen Wilson was requested to do the same with the English newspapers. Other members of the general board were present to discuss the statutes of the organization.
***Note to pages 12-13: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia highlighting the donation by Dr. Doherty and indicating the page 13***
Page 15-16-17-18: session of the 11th of September 1907
The text discusses the inauguration plans of La Proteccion, and they decide to wait until the project is up and running before moving on with the inauguration. The program is determined. Metal plaques are provided by Mr. Guerrero for 30 pesos. Expenditures were presented. The president and the secretary requested the authorities to make their imported products exempted from taxes. A Mr. Frank W. Carpenter donated 100 pesos. The president discusses that she as not been able to secure free baskets from the jail of Bilibid. Discusses milk delivery agreements. The milk was agreed to be transported in jars on hand and by foot. Some accountancy issues are discussed at the end.
***Note to pages 16-17: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: 2 pages 39-40***
Page 19-20-21: Session of the 3rd of October 1907
The text opens saying that there aren’t enough members present but that the meeting has to take charge to solve pressing matters. The inauguration is organized as to coincide with the presence of the Secretary of War, Taft, and therefore the organization is made to start on the 7th of October. A guest list was mentioned but not transcribed. Mrs. Susana Paterno was left in charge of the decorations. Helen Wilson and Trinidad Rizal are named as hosts. The president is still wondering about the baskets from Bilibid. The sterilizer from Germinal industries arrives. The president requests Mr. B. Legarda for alcohol, and Mr. Luis R. Yangco for petroleum. Mr. Yangco is yet to reply, everything seems to be fine with Legarda. A thank you note was written to the Ice Factory for providing ice, and they requested two arrobas (the arroba is used to measure liquids. Its value varies depending on the region and the liquid being measured). Subscribers start paying the fees now.
Page 22: Session of the 3rd of May 1907
NOTE: the date does not seem to follow the order. It is acknowledged at the end of the text that there was a mistake and this is a copy of what was written in PAGE 8 of the same book.
***Note to pages 22-23: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: Dr. David Doherty page 22***
Page 23-24-25: Session of the 1st of November 1907
The previous (p. 19) session is approved. Letters are written to several authorities of the Philippines, as well as to President Roosevelt, Mrs. Duvois [sic], and Dr. Doherty. The replies to the letters are also agreed. Expenses were agreed. Dr. Quintos is in charge of determining the amount of money that milk costs per each child per day. Measures are established to prevent the milk from going bad. Doctors Odok (?), a dentist, and Villa, an oculist, offered their services to the children for free. There is a change in the price of milk rations for the wealthy children. The concierge complained about being made responsible for spoiled milk for not closing the lid properly, and it was agreed this was not his responsibility. It was decided to ask members of the committee who did not go to the building whether they still wanted to offer their services to the corporation or not. An iron box was bought for the documents. It was decided to auction off the things that were left over from the “garden party”.
Page 26-27-28: Session of 24th of November 1907
A purchase of 2,000 bottles, padded gloves, and a bottle cleaner was agreed on. It was decided that poor children could not be accepted yet because of the lack of stable resources. Parents can be refunded for the unused tickets if they are forced to stop against their will. List of donors and members to be published in the press. Trinidad Rizal and Ariston Bautista have resigned. Bottles were breaking for a problem in the design of the Germinal machine, alternatives were put in place. Dr. Guerrero emphasized that the orders to the staff could only come from the technical committee. He also suggested that all committees should get together once per month to exchange ideas. It was agreed to call a general meeting to discuss the best way to attain stable subscribers.
Page 29-30: Session of 1st of December 1907
Ocampo was chosen to cover for Bautista in the Board of Directors, beating Guerrero 7 to 2. It was decided to separate children into two categories: wealthy and needy/poor. The first would pay 0.50 pesos and the second 0.05 pesos. The concierge is requested to note which sectors of the machine present cracked bottles. Interesting orthographic errors: Gervacio instead of Gervasio and serciorarse instead of cerciorarse.
Page 31-32-33-34: session of 18th December 1907
The meeting agrees the farewell to Dr. Doherty, which includes accompanying him by boat to the steamship. A portrait of Doherty is commissioned. The session is reproduced, signed and presented to Doherty as a sign of gratitude. A power was given to Doherty and Wilson to represent La Proteccion outside the Philippines. Schedule for the women in charge of preparing the milk is laid out. Those who do not come to work will be fined 1 peso, and five unjustified absences will grant dismissal. Issues with inscriptions, prompts the corporation to force mothers to buy tickets for ten days to ensure they will follow the program. Numbering system is introduced to ensure order among the people attending the milk dispense. The meeting lasted from 6pm to 7:30pm.
Page 35-36: Administrative committee meeting session of 17th January 1907
Note referring to the insertion of four sessions (pages 35 to 55) from 1907 from the Administrative committee. The decision to include it in the book was agreed on the 5th of January 1908.
This text refers to details of refreshments for the members of the committee and details of the material to be presented to Mrs. Smith as honorary president of the association.
Page 37-40: Congratulatory meeting of 20th January 1907
The meeting was organized in the Liceo de Manila. A poem was written by Paulino Victoriano for this purpose. The act is roughly narrated in the text. Ice-cream was served at the end to all the attendees. On page 39 onwards there is a list of attendees and their addresses.
***Note to pages 8-39: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: original [unintelligible writing]***
Page 41-42-43: Discourse of Maria Flores de Villamor
The society of “La proteccion de la Infancia” that was recently created thanks to your cooperation is pleased to salute you today.
The need for this institution has been felt by those who are interested in the prosperity of this nation, but Dr. Calderon can be recognized for being the one who expressed this idea in an eloquent medical conference in such a way that it drove the Asociacion Feminista to seek the necessary means to make this beautiful though a reality.
Great were the efforts made by the ladies of the Association, particularly those of our president, Mrs. Concepcion Felix; but every effort was met with feeble results. All of them were disappointed with the common ailments that affect great enterprises. We thought we had to give up hope on the idea of realizing our project when Dr. Doherty became interested in such a way that we had to garnish the support of the benevolent wife to the governor general. This distinguished lady magnanimously provided the Association with everything it needed; she opened the doors of her palace, of her gardens, and created a committee of distinguished ladies who competed to provide their very valuable cooperation. An example worthy of emulation!! [sic] As a mother and as a woman she was painfully impressed to know about the excessive infant mortality rate that was decimating our population that was taking us in giant steps toward the worst possible evil: depopulation.
Upon receiving notice of our efforts to stop this evil, she did not hesitate to organize a Charity Sale as a way to obtain donations for our enterprise.
Filled with the same sentiments, distinguished ladies from Manila’s society backed the charitable lady’s project, and united under a single thought, they did their best to obtain the result that is already known by you.
The success of the Garden Party celebrated on the 16th of December 1906 exceeded our expectations.
Thanks to these results and the support of Dr. Doherty we have the pleasure to announce the creation of La Proteccion de la Infancia. And giving you this great news I would also like to thank all the distinguished ladies that participated in the Garden Party and particularly to the noble wife of the Governor-General and to Dr. Doherty for his support. I would also like to thank all the companies that helped improved the display of the exposition, and to all who have contributed to it.
We would like to thank you all in the name of the Association and in the name of the poor mothers to whom La Proteccion de la Infancia works for.
I do not wish to cause unnecessary trouble to the audience by giving minute details of the objectives of this Association. I only wish to say that we [probably referring to womankind] should not remain indifferent to the magnitude of the great evil that we are trying to fend off with La Proteccion de la Infancia.
May the current crisis that the country is going through not be used as pretext; it should only highlight your support, making it twice as humanitarian and charitable.
La Proteccion de la Infancia is confident on the success not so much for the provision of food to those that request it, but for the advice that the technical committee will provide to mothers regarding the special care that the first infancy requires. And we have this confidence because we are convinced that the Philippine people will be kin to support us upon knowing the humanitarian and patriotic aims of our work. La Proteccion de la Infancia will always deserve the protection of the generous hearts.
I have said [common way to end a discourse]
Page 44: Letter from Villamor, C. De Calderon, and M. Arevalo to Mrs. James J. Smith, honorary president of the organization
Page 45-46-47: Poem “Philippine soul, to La Proteccion de la Infancia” by Pacifico Victoriano
A “La Proteccion de la Infancia”
Bella hija de la Aurora, deidad gentil de Oriente
En cuya tersa frente
Fulgura la pureza del lirio tropical
Emperatriz Malaya, encarnación divina
Del alma Filipina
Nacida bajo el fuego del sol meridional.
Te dio el romanticismo un alma hecha de flores
La patria sus amores
Te ofrenda, sus cantares un épico laúd.
Infunde a tu semblante el cielo de Oceanía
Encanto y poesía
Y dios sembró en tu pecho la flor de la virtud
Sultana de Malasia, encanto de mi tierra
que en la nefanda Guerra
trocabas su[…]torios nuestro horrido penar.
Y has vinculado, henchida de mágico optimismo
El nervio del heroísmo
Con la bravura indómita del alma popular.
Retando los peligros de aquella lid reñida
Brindabas al herido Consuelo en su dolor:
Tu voz deprecadora mato la cobardía
Y alientos infundía
Sembrando en nuestro espíritu el germen del valor
Te vi entre los relámpagos erguirte vencedora
Escrutando a la aurora;
Te vi en los hospitales ángel de caridad.
Te vi triunfar gloriosa en lides de la ciencia
Pedir la independencia
O predicar la Guerra por nuestra libertad
Te vi implorar al pueblo la unión tan requerida
La enseña en que relumbra el sol del ideal
Pulverizar el alma del fiero Maquiavelo
Que siembra en nuestro suelo
Los gérmenes malditos de desunión fatal.
En medio del desastre del huracán sañudo
La adversidad no pudo
Paralizar en tu alma la férvida pasión.
Con la Mirada ardiente esos ojos bellos
Cual mágicos destellos
Subyugas del tirano el fiero corazón.
¡Sube al tobar (?) glorioso, mansión de los querubes,
Y toca hasta las nubes
Con tu serena frente sin sombras de pesar….
Y al coronarte el merito de rosas y de estrellas
Entre albas y centellas
La fimbria de tu veste permite besar.
La Guerra ha fracasado. No ruge la tormenta
Que a la patria irredenta
En los sangrientos bosques hirió sin compasión.
Hoy tiende tu Mirada, consagra tu cariño
Al indigente niño
Que a tu bondad se abraza y pide protección.
¿No ves como la muerte reinando por doquiera
Con su guadaña fiera
La vida de los niños cercena sin piedad?
A la niñez defiende que vive desvalida
Y sálvale la vida
De la indigencia hiriente y cruel enfermedad
Ofrece tu heroísmo, tu corazón piadoso
Y tu amparo valioso
A esos infantes tiernos que imploran protección
Esos serán mañana cruzados de la Gloria
Que alcanzaran Victoria
Y lograran triunfantes la patria redención.
Así, harás nuestra raza pujante y ponderosa,
Crearas nación gloriosa
Que vencerá al coloso en lucha desigual
A César en Faralia un pueblo le ha vencido…
¡Mujer has merecido
Formando heroicos pueblos la fama universal.
Page 48-49-50-51: Administrative committee meeting session of 4th of February 1907
Only four members of the Board of Directors, all women, attended this meeting. They agreed to publicise the incorporation of La Proteccion into the public record on the newspapers (English and Spanish) and make a massive call to the public to become part of the organization through the different memberships offered. Membership payments would start in January. Purchase of the books for the documentation of the minutes of the General Meetings, Board of Directors’ Meetings, and Administrative Committee’s Meetings. It discusses the ongoing process of gaining rights over the property donated by Dr. Doherty. A Dr. Eleanor J. Pont offered her services but requests a space in the building of the corporation. The request is denied due to the need to make rehabilitation/refurbishment works in the building, and further details of the services she intends to provide as requested. The end of the document contains a list of items that were left over from the “Garden Party”, which indicates that money was raised through the purchase of items.
Page 53-54: Administrative committee meeting of 4 March 1907
The Department of public works charged the corporation with 194.66 pesos for expenses on improvements done in relation to the Garden Party. Stationary expenses. Work n the building was commissioned to a Mr. Tuazon (Quazon?) and Mr. San Pedro for 1002.72 pesos. A reply was received from Mrs. Smith regarding the funds from the Rizal Monument, though there is no indication as to what this reply was.
Page 55-56-57-58-59: Session of 5th January 1908
The decision to include the Administrative committee meetings’ minutes was approved [four preceding docs]. The tobacco company La Yebana (?) agrees to a 12.00 pesos / month subscription. In view of the subscription from this company, they decided to offer supporting companies the chance to name a child from one of their workers who would be inscribed in the program as a poor child (2nd class) and receive free medical checks. This subscription would amount to 14 pesos per month. This is first extended to La Yebana and Germinal, for their current support to the cause. 1,500 pesos are placed in deposit to earn interests. It discusses the inner workings of the organization n terms of funds. A total of 18 children were admitted. In the future, the number of children to be attended will depend on the number of permanent subscriptions. They established that access to the laboratory was restricted to authorized personnel during working hours. A numbering system was implemented for doctor’s appointments. It was agreed that every fortnight a member of the technical committee would inspect the cowshed.
Page 60-61-62-63-64-65: Session of 26th January 1908
The text starts with a donation made by a Mrs. Newton Gilbert by post of funds she gathered from a fund raiser at the “opera house” for a sum of 4,185.34 pesos. 2,000 of the sum were to be used for the purchase and construction of a larger laboratory adjacent to the current building and the rest were to be used for poor children inscribed in the program. Her efforts were acknowledged. The Gilbert Fund is created to support poor children with these moneys. Further details on how this money will be spent and managed are laid out. The increase in children triggers an increase of work load and so staff receives an increase in their salaries. Since it was impossible to receive the required milk in a single delivery, two deliveries are organized with the corresponding sterilizations; one in the morning, and one in the afternoon. Two work schedules are implemented: from 8 to 12, and from 1 to 5. Women preparing the milk were Margarita Santos (chief), and Simeona Amado (assistant), plus two other girls. Poor children will have priority over rich children in view that there is a shortage of milk (no more than 100 intakes of milk delivered per day). The agreements were to be published on newspapers, informing on the number of poor children attended and the limitations to wealthy children.
***Note to pages 62-62: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: Pablo Zanco (?) – relation Celia Diaz Laurel***
Page 66-67-68: Session of 29th January 1908
A letter including words of gratitude and the agreed management of the Gilbert Fund was sent to Mrs. Gilbert, and was translated into English by Mrs. Ponciano Reyes. Gilbert refuses the certificate of appreciation and requests that the money be spent on the children. Mr. Pio Trinidad agrees to make machines needed for the Laboratory. The neighbouring land is owned by Mr. Arcadio Arellano, and the purchase cannot be completed because the cost exceeds the budget of the corporation. The current building is adapted instead. Fifteen children are accepted under the Gilbert Fund.
Page 69: Session of 1st of March 1908
Patrona Gonzalez, assistant in the milk preparation, was given further work to clean the building. Margarita de la Rosa was fired for not doing her job. Another male assistant/clerk was hired. Dr. Calderon and Dr. Guerrero were asked to speak with Dr. Heiser and the Director of the Bureau of Agriculture to obtain milk from the government’s farm. Typist Fermin E. Cruz was given 6 extra pesos for typing the docs for the newspapers. The basin was moved to a new location, at a cost of 40 pesos. La Proteccion requested from Mr. Sergio Osmeña, president of the Assembly, that the members of the assembly contribute to La Proteccion. It is agreed that the women in charge of collecting payments would earn 10% of the collection.
Page 71-72-73: Session of 8th of April 1908
The meeting was scheduled for the 5th, but the president felt indisposed. It was agreed an increase of expense in the improvement of the laboratory and the galvanized roof, as well as the new kitchens. New worker to prepare milk named Petrona Gonzalez. It was decided that if a wealthy child exceeded the 800gr intake of milk, the parents were to pay 0.75 instead of 0.50 unless the committee decided otherwise. They requested the purchase of a wood table covered in zinc and a filter. The corporation decided to join the international organization of “la Gota de Leche”. They agreed to sign the Electricity contract, but discuss that they should remind them that the Company had agreed to provide free service. There is a mention to the reduction of subscriptions and the need to make sure that the number of poor children is directly proportional to the number of subscribers, and that the remaining places (vaquen = vacar = become vacant) of the Gilbert Fund be filled with poor children. They finally agreed on taking the printed leaflets to the factories to request their support.
Page 74-75: Session of 3rd May 1908
The concierge, Santiago Pingol, resigned and Margarita Santos and Petrona Gonzalez took over his duties. An Opera production agrees to overcharge tickets and give a donation to La Proteccion, for a total sum of 429.70 pesos. An increase in work lead to an increase in the salaries of the women who prepared the milk: Margarita Santos, Simona Amado, and Petrona Gonzalez.
Page 76-77: Session of 14th of June 1908
The budget of the previous year is approved. The purchase of a bottle cleaner is accepted. A new treasurer is named following the change of personnel of the Spanish Philippine Bank, Eliseo Cuadras (?). Something must have happened, because they agree to take to court those people who pretend to be poor to benefit from the program although they can afford the price established by for the wealthy families. Margarita Santos is named person in charge of conducting these investigations into the background of the families. The customs office denied the request of the Corporation to exempt their material (bottles) from taxation. Miss Asuncion Soriano resigns from her role as chair, and she is substituted by Miss Pura Villanueva.
Page 78-79: Session of 5th of July 1908
The previous minutes are accepted. The budget for the previous month is accepted. A reception was celebrated in honour of the members of the parliament to raise funds, wich yielded 125 pesos. The corporation acknowledges Standard oil of New York [N.Y.] for increasing the oil that it provides to the corporation for free. The total money raised through subscribers is 256.35 pesos. Customs taxes ascend to 100.61 pounds. A letter is prepared to request the funds obtained at a fundraiser in Iloilo in benefit of Gota de Leche. Create a committee of ladies to congratulate Mrs. Gilbert for the nomination of her husband to the Philippine Commission. They commissioned the writing of letters to the millionaires of America to ask for funds for the organization, and asked Dr. Calderon to take the letter with him to raise funds for the corporation.
Page 80: Session of 12th of July 1908
The cows of the supplier have fallen victims of an epidemic. The president is required to look for alternative sources of milk under provisional contract of six months. The letter [memorial = report] for fundraising in America is prepared, only technical details remain to be added.
Page 81: -82-83: Session of 2nd of August 1908
Domingo Garcia is the new treasurer from the Spanish Philippine Bank. They have issues getting suppliers for the milk, most of which are in disagreement with the sanitary conditions required for the milk extraction. They resort to pay 19 cents per each extraction until other suppliers can provide milk. It was agreed to celebrate a vocal and instrumental concert of the marble concert hall of the city council to raise funds. The concert would take place in late September. The women they want to organize and “influence” is listed in page 82. The price of the concert would be the minimum, giving the attendees the chance to pay as much as they want or can. The report/letter for the American millionaires is approved and given to Dr. Calderon for him to take to Washington. Accountancy details.
***Note to pages 82-83: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: [unintelligible] no 1st name***
Page 84-85-86: Session of 13th of August 1908
It’s decided that the building will host industrial material/objects exhibition from all around the Philippines, some of which will be for sale and its revenue given to the corporation. The ones that are for exhibition only will be given back to the owners. The exhibition is to be managed close to the Bureau of Education so that the students can also exhibit their work in the same conditions. The idea is to present this exhibition to the American marines coming soon to Manila. Further details of the concert are agreed. Piano, violin, singing, and the night is to end with a ball with at least twelve songs that can be danced to. The ball can last until midnight. The concert is to be the 26th of September.
Page 87-88: Session of 6th September 1908
Further details of the concert are discussed. Tickets will be sold at the venue by Leoncio Rojas and a friend of his. They will receive 10% if they collect more that 150 pesos from the tickets, 10 and 5 pesos respectively if they do not surpass that figure. Details of the decoration and the staff to be hired for the event are discussed. Many letters were received regarding the exhibition of industrial items, but there was need to further clarification of the conditions of the exhibition.
Page 89-90: Session of 4th of October 1908
The Opera House concert was a success, and they gathered 1,304.20 pesos. They agreed to thank everyone and send a note to the press to inform of the success, including the number of children that can benefit from this sum (in full programs of 18 months). The list of items to be exhibited upon return of the American Fleet in Gota de Leche is presented (not copied in the doc). There is a lengthy account of people who have their children inscribed as poor abusing the system and requesting milk at out of office hours. It was agreed that the concierge (a woman) would be instructed not to accept request outside of hours and to follow the protocol strictly.
Page 91-92: Session of 18th of October 1908
The first annual report was approved with some changes. It is agreed to request from the School of Doctors and Chemists a certificate stating that the corporation is productive so that La Proteccion can enjoy full rights over the property donated by Dr. Doherty. Dr. Freer (?) donated photographs of the building of La Proteccion. It was agreed to send a reminder to Dr. Doherty of the conditions of the donation and include in the letter the certificate from the School of Doctors and Chemists.
***Note to pages 92-92: two loose notes written by Lourdes Sarabia: note 1: Acta – (Policy of La Prot.). Note 2: Pura Villanueva [crossed] C Standard Oil Donation***
Page 93-94: Session of 8th of November 1908
The committee requests to be informed whether the marines will be disembarking in Manila, and if so, decide on a day to receive them and show them the exhibition. Petty expenses are described. Given the surplus, two more poor children can e admitted. The pictures taken during a course on breast-feeding are consciously included in the annual report for information, but taking into account the opinion of the technical committee. A camera was purchased for the technical committee.
Page 95-96: Session of 12th of December 1908
The text starts with mentions to the many good deeds of Dr. Doherty and his role as founder of the corporation, as a way of mourning for his passing. It was decided to exhibit his portrait in a prominent place in the Gota de Leche building. It was also agreed to extend the condolences of the corporation to his family. A mourning day was to be celebrated in Gota on the 27th of December. Musical numbers were proposed. A memorial plaque was to be placed in La Proteccion building. Reference to the need to consolidate the property rights for the corporation is mentioned in point 4. A new woman is hired to prepare milk, a Gregoria Chumbuque. Villamor resigns and is substituted following the statutes. So the board of directors is as follows: the secretary accountant is Maria Arevalo, the auditor is Pura Villanueva, and the vocal is Sofia Reyes de Veyra, a member of the Asocicion Feminista (Feminist Association).
***Note to pages 96-97: loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: David T. Doherty 1908 Dec. Death [underlined] mourn?/month?***
Page 98-99: Session of 19th of December 1908
Joaquin Quintos decided to pay for the portrait of Dr. Doherty. The costs of the memorial service will be divided equally and paid between the board of directors and the technical committee. Point 3 discusses the program of the event.
Page 100-101: Session of 3rd of January 1909
The expenses of the memorial service are approved. It is agreed that the president should meet with the lawyer of the city of Manila to inquire on the situation of the property rights of the land. The day for the general meeting is agreed. The treasurer suggests investing the money to earn interests.
Page 102-103: Session of 10th of February 1909
Felipe Calderon returns from the US with a sum of 1,234 pesos collected during the conference in Lake Mohonk Mountain House in New York for La Proteccion. It was agreed to acquire a barn that could house cows for milk under healthy conditions and which would provide easy access to the veterinary of the government. Given the urgency of this last point, it was agreed to call for an extraordinary meeting.
Page 104-105: Session of 19th February 1909
It was agreed that the president would visit monsignor Jeremias Harty to see if there were any details regarding the property of La Proteccion in dr. Doherty’s last will, particularly regarding the 2,000 pesos that were still to be paid of the mortgage. Six Australian cows were requested from the commercial house of William Van Buskirk.
Page 106-107: Session of 24th of February 1909
The text explains the cost of the Australian cows. The cost of six cows plus the construction of the barn is 2700 pesos. Concepcion de Calderon has not been able to meet with monsignor.
Page 108-109-110: session of 6th of March 1909
***Ink is very faded***The text agrees on the previous minutes plus the budget of the previous month. Acknowledges donations b Dr. Ariston Bautista (100 pesos), Andres Soler from Nueva Caceres (3 pesos), and Timoteo Alcala from Daraga (2 pesos). The single ladies of the committee agree on work schedules (not specify for what). The archbishop has no knowledge of Doherty’s last will and does not know if he is a beneficiary, but if he were, he would donate it to La Proteccion. The borther od Doherty sends two letters, one to thank the organization of the memorial, the second with copies of the documents related to his brother’s debt/outstanding balance of the mortgage of the property donated to La Proteccion. Payment in Chartered Bank for 1000 bottles. Cows are cheaper elsewhere. Calderon negotiates with Smith Bell for better prices. Requests 2 more arrobas of ice for free, but will pay if they do not want to serve them for free again.
Page 111-112: Session of 19th of March 1909
***Ink is very faded***It seems Smith Bell will provide the cows. The blue print of the cowshed is finished and available for contractors to prepare proposals/budgets. Documents related to Doherty’s property were given to the Board and they forwarded them to Doherty’s brother. Pura Villanueva managed to convince the Harmston circus in the city to dedicate 50% of a night’s revenue for Gota in a special fund raiser. 5,000 bottles were ordered. Petty expenses from minor works in the building were discussed.
Page 113-114: Session of 3rd of April 1909
***Ink is very faded*** The “Inaugural Ball” association raised funds for Gota and got 137.40 pesos. The Harmston circus raised 404 pesos for La Proteccion. Manuel Ramos, the clerk/assistant, was to receive a raise. More purchases for the laboratory. A note to emphasize that the documents of the corporation cannot be taken out of the building for any kind of reason. Thank you letters were to be written to donors.
Page 115-16: Session of 1st of May 1909
There are no bottles available, so they need to reduce the number of children to be treated to 1 wealthy child and 1 poor child until they receive the 4,000 bottles they have requested via telegram. Arellano presents five proposals for the construction of the cowshed and they choose the one presented by the Chinese Go-Quay [sic]. They decide to inquire to the veterinary of the government whether it is wise to import cattle from abroad in the hot and rainy season. Children’s clothing and a crib are donated by the wife of Mr. Poizart (?). It is decided to give the clothing to mothers who have observed the prescriptions of the staff and the crib was to be used in the doctor’s office/ clinic. A decision is made to purchase a cupboard for archives.
Page 117: Extraordinary session of 15th of May 1909
The veterinary gives his approval of purchasing cattle now and it is decided to move ahead with the construction of the barn. Arellano is made officer in charge of the works.
***Note to pages 116-117: two loose notes written by Lourdes Sarabia: note 1: established Gota de Leche May 1909 page 117 arch. Arellano. Note 2: Volunteer workers organized days of the week for their duties [possible reference to page 148]***
Page 118-119: Session of 18th of May 1909
A formal complaint is made by Mr. Juan Pons, the person who provided milk to the organization. He points out that the construction and maintenance of the cowshed without formally notifying him in advance severely damages his business. The board agrees to buy two cows. Margarita Santos is overwhelmed with the work it is being given, and it is agreed to remove her from her milk preparation duties, making Mrs. Simona Amado the head of the milk preparation.
Pages 120-121: Session of 5th of June 1909
It is decided to purchase two cows from Mr. Pons. They agree to purchase 600 bottles from a shop in Manila to face the demands of the laboratory. The board agrees to the celebration of lectures and conferences on child hygiene to to the mothers that go to La Gota and to schools around the capital. It is agreed to have a god-mother and a god-father for the barn for the inauguration.
Pages 122-123: Session of 8th of July 1909
***Ink faded, blotched signature*** Details of expenses are given (bottles and cowshed). Staff for the cowshed would be: 1 manager, 1 shepherd, 1 milkboy. 2 cows were to be purchased a week before the cowshed started working. The land upon which the cowshed is constructed is rented for 10 years, for 10 pesos per month. The lab needs painting. They agree to put up a sign saying: “Milk will not be provided without previous purchase of a ticket”. Baskets would be repaired in Bilibid jail and paid for. It is agreed to ask for further details about the loan of 5,000 pesos that was authorized by the Philippine Assembly for La Proteccion.
Pages 124-125: Session of 19th July 1909
Dr. Heiser from the Department of Health wrote a letter to the corporation to inform about the amount of money that was given to La Proteccion to feed poor children. Given the difficult access to fresh milk the corporation decided: a) to sustain 10 poor children with the general funds, b) once the Gilbert fund has ran out the children will be sustained with the funds of the corporation, c) that more children will be accepted according to the funds established by the Assembly to be given monthly to the corporation. Given that the bottles bought from Germany were better, they decided to start buying them from Santos & Jarling. Ocampo is requested to clarify the details of the construction and quality of the barn with the contractor. It is agreed that the president will write a reply letter to Dr. Heiser.
Pages 126-127: Session 7th of august
Dr. Heiser replies saying that the corporation can withdraw 500 pesos per month. The contractor indicates that work on the barn will start the following Monday. An invitation letter is sent by the Humane Association, to which La Proteccion wishes to reply with a thank you and reports from the corporation, including a report of the Asociacion Feminista Filipina.
Page 128-129: Session of 4th of September 1909
The prices of the local cows seem to be very expensive, and thus a commission is created to check prices of cows brought from abroad. The results are to be presented in an extraordinary meeting. It was decided to exchange a ”quilei” donated by a lady to Gota, for a large carriage to transport the milk. Given the many meetings of the Board and the common absence of some members, it is decided to name Margarita Quintos the chair.
Page 130-139: Session of 10th of September 1909
The Board agrees to send all the necessary information (of the 14 poor children registered in the program) for the audit that needs to be conducted by the government in order for the corporation to access the funds. Pay rise for the secretary assistant. They need a spin-drier for the lab. Dr. Calderon and Dr. Quinto are commissioned to purchase the cows from abroad and write up the contracts.
Page 132-133: Session of 22nd September 1909
A Mr. Faustino Lichanco offered high quality cows at a discount price of 250 pesos (from the original price of 400pesos). It is agreed to review the conditions of the contract established by Mr. Alonso. Two cows are rquested from Mr. Lichanco. Ocampo suggests the previous decision be put into a contract. Dr. Calderon is named representative of the corporation to conduct business with Mr. Faustino Lichanco and Bell Smith for the purchase of cows. It was agreed to accept up to 45 poor children under the government’s fund.
Page 134: Extraordinary session of 27th of September 1909
Cows arrive from abroad and are sold in the country at between 250 and 280 pesos. It is decided to purchase two cows with the support of an expert on this matter. Dr. Calderon requested four cows from Bell Smith. The terms agreed with Mr. Alonso on the previous session were instead rejected.
Page 135-136: Session of the 2nd of October 1909
It was agreed that following governmental requirements related to internal revenue, all payslips to staff that exceeds 30 pesos will carry a seal. The transportation expenses declared to La Proteccion should be accompanied by a receipt that should be provided by the driver. Two cows were purchased under specific conditions for 225 pesos. Given the difficulty of getting a stable supply of milk, two more cows are requested in repurchase at the price of 230 pesos and under some conditions. Given that the cowshed has already four cows and that there is cattle from abroad available in the local market, the agreement made earlier with Bell Smith is suspended. The president requests (and is granted) that the manager of the barn receive a raise in his salary.
Page 137-138: Session of 23rd of October 1909
Maria Arevalo suggests buying two cows and their calves from Mr. Figeras since this would provide milk to La Proteccion from the very beginning. The motion is accepted. Dr. Guerrero is commissioned to purchase a modern bottle cleaner from Europe. It was also decided to cancel the previous decision of changing the “quiles” for a large carriage because it was useful for the corporation. It is instead decided to rent a carriage and pay monthly.
Page 139-140-141: Session of 6th of November 1909
The cow from Mr. Figueras and the calf are paid (340 pesos). The cows have been a month in Gota witout these showing signs of pregnancy. Therefore they decide to return the cows. Since the cowshed already provides milk for Gota and they have no desire of getting too much milk, it is decided to gradually reduce the milk obtained from external sources. It is suggest (and accepted) by Dr. Guerrero to open skylights in the barn for better hygiene. A veterinary is requested to come every week to inspect the cows. Expenses for this are approved. Items needed for the laboratory are purchased from Santos & Jarling. Pay rise for Simona Amado and Gregoria Chumbuque is approved.
Page 142: Session of 4th of December 1909
The secretary is commissioned with the purchase of another cow with its calf. A new shepherd is hired to attend the cows and clean the barn. Two cows that do not produce enough milk are to be sold.
Page 143-144: Session of 8th of January 1910
It was decided to look into the results of the event at the Opera House celebrated onteh 29th of December since it stated in the program that the funds collected during the event would be destined to La Gota de Leche. It was decided to sell the cows that did not produce milk to the highest offer, and also sell the calves that could be separated from their mothers. Two galvanized buckets were to be purchased. To maintain the high quality of the service, it was decided that random visits could/should be made to the shed at any time, and at the time of the milking. A milkmaid machine was to be purchased. They receive a letter from the brother of Dr. Doherty asking for the last will of his brother to be sent to Chicago, along with witnesses’ accounts. He reminds the Board that the contract expires in February 1910 and that the debt of the mortgage should be paid by then. It is agreed to contact the city council of Manila to verify the cancelation of the debt and to ask the archbishop Harty to send the last will to Chicago.
Page 145-146: session of 7th February 1910
Mrs. De Veyra resigns from her position as secretary-accountant citing the many responsibilities of the role (she was elected the previous month). The resignation is approved. The role goes to Miss Pilar Zamora, teacher of the islands. The roles remain as follows: Presidency goes to Mrs. Concepcion F. Widow of Calderon, the secretariat is for Miss Pilar Zamora, the auditor role is for Mrs. De Veyra, Maria de Villamor is the chair, and Dr. Calderon and Dr. Ocampos are the technical chairs.
Page 147-148-149: Session of 5th of March 1910
Ignacio Villamor suggests the celebration of the 3rd anniversary of La Proteccion with a literary and musical event to be celebrated in October. The program is to be prepared at a later date. Improvement works to be made to the barn. The president suggests that the cows need to be walked, but forbids them to graze while they are out. Miss Araceli Guerrero resigns from her duties in the administrative committee (she was elected in January). Miss Leonarda Limjap is elected to substitute her. She is not present; Dr. Quintos is in charge of communicating this decision to her. The task of inspecting the work is divided among the Board as follows: Sunday – Mrs. Veyra, Monday – Miss Quintos, Tuesday – Miss Francisco, Wednesday – Mrs. Villamor, Thursday – Miss Limjap, Friday – Mrs. Calderon, and Saturday – Miss Zamora. The material needed for the lab mentioned in January (bottle cleaner and teats).
***Note to pages 148-149: two loose notes written by Lourdes Sarabia: note 1: letter from brother of Doherty Chicago. Note 2: Filomena Francisco (?) Guerrero.***
Page 150-151-152: Session of 2nd of April 1910
The previous minutes was amended, Limjap was not made member of the administrative committee. Miss Maria Arevalo was elected on her instead. Accountancy details of expenses related to items for the lab. The committee decided that it was in need of a photographic camera to record the improvement and advancement of the children inscribed in the program, and the purchase was approved with a budget of 50 pesos. A wooden ladder was to be purchased to clean the building of the corporation. The cleaning machines were to be fixed. There were to be some works in the cowshed including plumbing that would bring a water tap to each manger. Two cows and their calves were purchased as previously agreed. Another cow was to be purchased. 500 copies of the second report were to be printed. It was decided to hire two nurses (the term was written in English) to do house calls and ensure that the mothers are following the advice of the technical committee. It was agreed that the money collected during the Rizal day (written as such) was to be taken to the bank. A salary increase was approved for the cowshed personnel.
Page 153-154-155: Session of 7th of May 1910
It is agreed to purchase a machines to grind and dekernel corn for the benefit of the corporation. The Humane Association requests a representative of the corporation to be present at the next meeting (written as “miting” instead of the Spanish reunion) which will be celebrated in Washington in October. It is agreed to send Hellen C. Wilson on their behalf, since she lives in the U.S. She is to be informed via a letter. The technical committee was to get together and, upon dividing the clothes donated by Mrs. Poizart, select the mothers that would receive the donation. The camera was purchased but could not be used because it did not have a chassis (support frame). Six were ordered. Mouth pieces and teats were to be purchased, and Dr. Guerrero was asked to deal with supplier Mr. Zamora. Bottles from Paris are requested since they will not have enough before the order arrives. Point 9: one of the women in charge of making the milk and an assistant (bellboy) are sick and it is agree that their salary will not be discounted. The people who substitute them will receive 6 and 5 pesos per day respectively. Dr. Calderon read the regulations established by the city hall to send two nurses to the corporation for house-calls.
***NOTE: there is a call for a General Meeting loose between these pages dated to 1924 and signed by Natividad Almeda-Lopez with written numbers in the back, and a loose paper from Gota de Leche with numbers, the oldest of which seems to be Num. 1198698 de Julio 1927 [of July 1927].***
Page 156-157: Session of 4th of June 1910
The city hall offered to include in a budget of 1,800 pesos for the salaries of two nurses for Gota. The Board members agree to inform the city hall that the nurses have refused a salary of 45 pesos per month without transportation that has been offered to them given the dangerous areas that they are requested to go to. Donations are made from the Mindoro Development Corporation (100 pesos) and the Philippines Free Press (written as “pres”, they gave 5 pesos and agreed to a monthly payment of 5 pesos). The winners of the donated clothes are as follows: From Dr. Calderon: Number 285, Eloiza Lumagui. From Dr. Quintos: Number 265, Domingo Juliayan. From Dr. Guerrero: Number 319, Basilisa Bautista. They propose to feed the cows with boiled sweet potato. The concierge and milk woman Margarita Santos receives an increase in her salary, now she ears 50 pesos per month. 7 pesos were given to Paz Santos, who substituted Margarita Santos while the latter was sick. The corporation is to extend its gratitude to Mr. Secretary of Public Education, Newton W. Gilbert for allowing the corporation to purchase ice at staff prices.
Page 158-159: Session of 2nd of July 1910
The city hall says the budgets are already approved and no changes can be made at this time [in relation to the two nurses]. More bottles with special lids are requested from Paris. Gregoria Chumbuque is to take charge of keeping track of the bottles and lids in circulation to ensure that these are given back. She will be given 5 pesos extra if all are accounted for but they will discount from her salary the number of missing bottles in pesos.
Page 160-161: Session of 6th of August 1910
A new cow is to be purchased. The cowshed is to be expanded for two more cows and a kitchen is to be added. A reception is to be celebrated in the building in honour of the wife of the Secretary of War of the U.S., Mrs. Dickinson, on the 13th of August between 9 and 10 am. The board of directors’ meetings are to be moved to the second Saturday of each month. It was agreed to connect the water pipes of the cowshed with the drinking water of the city. 2,000 technical sheets for the technical committee were to be printed.
Page 162-163: Session of 10th of September 1910
4,000 bottles are received from the order placed in May. Dr. Calderon’s proposal to sell excess bottles at 25 cents is accepted. Pay increase for the cowshed personnel. It is agreed to cover the expenses incurred in the publication/reproduction of photographs in scientific journals and newspapers accompanying articles written by Dr. Calderon. The publications are to benefit La Proteccion. A donation of 2,000 pesos was made by the party accompanying Mrs. Dickinson. It is agreed that 6 more children will be accepted in the program to fill the quota of 60 poor children. A proposal is made by “La Higiene” to put tubes (?) in the cow shed, and it is accepted.
Page 164-165-166: Session of 24th of September 1910
In celebration of the 3rd anniversary, there will be a cinematographic exhibition including the following:
1st: A video showing a group of malnourished children that recovered their health after being part of the Gota de Leche program.
2nd: A video showing a group of mothers with their children. These mothers have never managed to see their children live through infancy until now.
3rd: a video showing different departments of Gota de Leche and the barn.
4th: Photographs of some of the donors who have contributed to Gota.
The program is outlined, with discourses given by men who are part of the corporation. The date for the event is the 17th of November. It was decided to request the city hall to devout the budget they allocated to Gota for two nurses for the sustenance of poor children. The bottles with lids and other items requested from Paris came in the ship Belgravia. Dr. Calderon suggested buying one or two more cows. It was also agreed that the assistants (bellboys) would get a salary raise.
Page 167-168-169: Session of 8th of October 1910
It was agreed to thank Mr Hashim, owner of the Grand opera House for allowing the free use of this space and a cinematographic machine for the third anniversary celebration. The Board agrees to have the rental contract of the barn formally written with the owner (a woman) for an extension of a year (lengthy and specific terms). Calderon keeps asking for more cows but there is an issue with it; it seems there are not many milk cows and new quarantine laws from the ministry of Agriculture are stalling the commerce with cattle from Australia. It was agreed to pay for the costs related to the cinematographic projections.
Page 170-171: Session of 29th of October 1910
The program of the 3rd Anniversary event is modified because Villamor will be in the US. Miss Dolores Velarde is in charge of reading the annual report. There is music and performances, a speech by M. Bernabe and a conference by Dr. Calderon accompanied by videos. The tasks are divided among the Board members. Travel expenses related to this event would be paid for by the corporation. The payment of the material from Paris is paid using an instalment contract.
Page 172-173: Session of 5th of November 1910
Accountancy details are explained. The auditor informs that she has been unsuccessful in her talks with the authorities regarding the purchase of cattle from abroad. Another payment to Paris is agreed.
Page 174-175: Session of 28th of November 1910
A waiting list for poor children is established. It is decided to admit four children with the moneys collected from the event of the 17th of November. This will be shared with the newspapers. The building’s facade needs to be painted. There are three cows that do not give a lot of milk, one is to be sold and the other two kept until they can be replaced. Leoncio Rojas was to be given 5 extra pesos for his work selling tickets at the venue.
Page 176-177: Session of 10th December 1910
It was agreed to tackle issues with the foundation of the facade of the building before painting it. Teh approved the order of 50 baskets from the jail of Bilibid. The owners of the new cinema Ydeal offered to donate the revenue of the inauguration day to Gota.
Page 178-179-180-181: Session of 11th of March 1911
More bottles and teats are requested from Paris. The foundations and the painting of the building are done. It was decided not to penalize people affected by the fire in the suburb of Tondo who could not return the baskets. It is agreed to ask the electrical company to provide free service in the barn. New expenses related to new electric cable installations. Documents were received from Doherty’s brother related to the donation of the land where the corporation is located. Miss Pilar Zamora requests permission to ask for a copy of the last will to Doherty’s family. This is agreed. Mr. Arellano offers to sell the neighbouring terrain to the corporation. A committee is formed to discuss the conditions. The nurses accept the 45 pesos salary without transport previously offered. The board members decide to discuss these funds with the city council to have them allocated again. The School of Doctors and Chemists thank the corporation for allowing them to use their building to meet in the first Assembly of Philippine Doctors and Chemists celebrated in February 1911.
Page 182: Extraordinary session of 13th of March 1911
After checking the accounts and the price of the land offered by Arellano, the idea of purchasing the land was aborted. It was requested instead the price of a pasteurization machine.
Page 183-184-185: Extraordinary session of 27th of March 1911
The meeting was to agree on improvements to the barn. They agreed to expand the barn’s space and pay 20 pesos more to the owner. A new barn was to be built behind to isolated sick cattle. Since the milk from pregnant cows could not be used, it was decided to sell the milk at 12pesos. The farms from where the corporation received the milk needed to be inspected once per month, so a position is made for an inspector who will earn 30 pesos per month. It was agreed to ask the barn to be disinfected by the government as soon as the diseased cows are removed. A credit of 12,000 pesos is approved by the government for Gota, and a committee of one will be in charge of finding out how to access this credit. A letter from the brother of Doherty is received, through which it is made known that a sum of 100 pesos can be collected from Mr. Jose Quadras as a donation of the Doherty family to Gota. The Board agrees to write back saying that it is impossible to collect that sum (no reason why). An advertisement is to be placed informing the locals that Gota needs to purchase cows. The women preparing milk will be admonished with a fine of 2 pesos for being absent from their work for no reason. They are to be told that the first time will be 2 pesos, the second will be 4 pesos, and the third they will be dismissed.
Page 186-187: Session of 8 of April 1911
Insurance is bought on the property and the items separately. The owner of the land requests 25 pesos instead of the 20 pesos per month of rent offered by the corporation. The offer is rejected and the barn expansion halted. In turn it is decided to look for large plots for sale where the barn can be relocated. They are seeking 10,000 square meters. The city hall agrees to provide credit to the corporation to make use of two nurses.
Page 188-189-190-191: Extraordinary session of 22nd of April 1911
The extraordinary meeting was to inform that four cows had perished due to the prevailing illness. Only one remained healthy, as it was isolated when the sickness was first detected. The minister of Agriculture was informed of the problem but it did not take any measures, neither regarding the animals or the sickness. It was agreed not to purchase any more cows until the epidemic was over, disinfect the barn, close the barn for two or three months, reduce the staff to a single caretaker to look after the building and the remaining cow. They also requested the temporary discontinuance of the electricity. The board was to evaluate the damage in terms of milk produced and expenses incurred for the maintenance of the cows. They found an ideal land in Pasay with over 10,000 for the cattle. They agree to move forward with the purchase for 3,200 pesos, but they wanted to ask for a reduction. They resolved that the land will be purchased from Warren Barnes & Co.
***Note to pages : loose note written by Lourdes Sarabia: [unintelligible] 3T***
Page 192-193: Session of 18th of May 1911
They decide to import cattle from Calcutta (two cows) since cattle from Australia is banned. A project for the new barn is read, but doubts about the project prompts the request of expert advice. They intend to lift a stone wall around the farm and make some improvements, and they agree to review the contract.
Page 194: Extraordinary session of 29th of May 1911
They gathered together to approve the project for the cleaning and fencing of the new terrain with the amendments made by Arellano. The contract was allocated to Crisanto Bautista for 1,520.96 pesos.
Page 195-196: Session of 1st of July 1911
The Ministry of Agriculture says it will lift the ban against Australian cattle imports in a few months and that the board should get in touch with the farms to start importing animals for the corporation. The last will of Dr. Doherty is received from America. The board authorized Dr. Calderon to get in touch with Don Pedro Roxas who lives in Paris to request his participation in the events that will be organized in that city by Dr. Calderon in benefit of La Proteccion. Margarita de la Rosa is promoted as milk preparer.
Page 197: Session of 16th of July 1911
A pasteurization machine is bought from Mr. Nathan Strauss from New York. Arellano’s amendments in the estimates for the construction of the barn are accepted. Given the costs of the construction, they decide to get the minimum number of buildings.
Page 198-199-200: Session of 12th of August 1911
They agree on a final figure of 5,498 for the construction of the new bar, with further details as to the construction phases and payments. Dr. Guerrero is in charge of inspecting the works in Pasay. The corporation receives more bottles from Paris. There were 80 bottles missing from the order. Items for the lab are ordered. Dr. Calderon was left in charge of purchasing more cows for the barn.